Aukštaitija (lit. Aukštaitija, Belor. Aukshtota, from the lit. aukštas — “high”) is a historical region of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which includes areas in the North-East of modern Lithuania and in the North-West of modern Belarus. The name can be literally translated as “upper land”, in contrast to Žemaitija — “lower land”, that is, downstream of the Neman river. The Republic of Lithuania is a historical and ethnocultural region.